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Polytheism And Disbelief

 

Salvation of all mankind from the greatest sin against Allah

(Shirk and Kufr i.e. polytheism and disbelief) I consider it essential to mention here some details of the greatest sin which will not be forgiven by Allah. This unpardonable sin is Shirk

Shirk implies ascribing partners to Allah or ascribing divine attributes to others besides Allah and believing that the source of power, harm and blessings comes from another besides Allah.

Almighty Allah says:

"Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin."(V. 4:48).

Almighty Allah says:

"Then when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.

"Then those whose scales (of good deeds) are heavy, - these! they are the successful.

"And those whose scales (of good deeds) are light, - they are those who lose their ownselves; in Hell will they abide."

"The Fire will burn their faces, and they will grin with disfigured lips (disfigured)."

"(It will be said) 'Were not My Verses (this Qur'n) recited to you and then you used to deny them?'

"They will say: 'Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us and we were (an) erring people.

"Our Lord! Bring us out of this; if ever we return (to evil) then indeed we shall be Zlimn (polytheists, oppressors, unjust, and wrongdoers etc.).'

"He (Allah) will say: 'Remain you in it with ignominy! And speak you not to Me!' (V. 23:101-108).

"And whoever invokes (or worships) besides Allah, any other lh (god), of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely! Al-Kafirn (disbelievers in Allah and in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists, pagans, idolaters, etc.) will not be successful." (V. 23:117).

ASH-SHIRK POLYTHEISM AND ITS VARIOUS MANIFESTATIONS

Definition: Shirk basically is polytheism, i.e., the worship of others along with Allah. It also implies attributing divine attributes to any other besides Allah. It particularly implies associating partners in worship with Allah or to believe that the source of power, harm or blessings is from others besides Allah.

Types: There are three types of Shirk, namely:

(1) Ash-Shirk-al-Akbar, i.e. major Shirk

(2) Ash-Shirk-al-Asghar, i.e. minor Shirk

(3) Ash-Shirk-al-Khafi, i.e. inconspicuous Shirk.

Manifestations: (1) Ash-Shirk-al-Akbar (The major Shirk): The major and serious polytheistic form, it has four aspects:

(a) Shirk-ad-Du', i.e. invocation.This aspect implies invoking, supplicating or praying to other deities besides Allah.

Almighty Allah says:

"And when they embark on a ships they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others," (V.29:65)

(b) Shirk-al-Niyyah wal-Iradah wal-Qasd. This aspect implies inten-tions, purpose and determination in acts of worship or religious deeds not for the sake of Allah but directed towards other deities.

Almighty Allah says:

"Whosoever desires the life of the world and its glitter, to them We shall pay in full (the wages of) their deeds therein, and they will have no diminution therein. They are those for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter but Fire; and vain are the deeds they did therein. And of no effect is that which they used to do."(V. 11:15,16)

(c) Shirk-at-T'a. This aspect implies rendering obedience to any authority against the Order of Allah.

Almighty Allah says:

"They (Jews and Christians) took their Rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), and (they also took as their lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded (in the Torah and the Gospel) to worship none but One Ilh (God i.e., Allah), L ilha ill Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and Glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)." (V.9:31).

Once, while Allah's Messenger SAW was reciting the above Verse, 'Adi bin Hatim said, "O Allah's Prophet! They do not worship them (rabbis and monks)." Allah's Messenger said, "They certainly do. They (i.e. Rabbis and monks) made legal things illegal, and illegal things legal, and they (i.e. Jews and Christians) followed them; and by doing so they really worshipped them."(Narrated by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Jarir). (Tafsir At-Tabari, Vol.10, Page No. 114).

(d) Shirk-al-Mahabbah. This implies showing the love which is due to Allah Alone, to others than Him.

Almighty Allah says:

"And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else). If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is Severe in punishment." (V. 2:165)

(2) Ash-Shirk-al-Asghar Ar-Riy' (The minor Shirk, i.e. acts performed to show off). Any act of worship or any religious deed done in order to gain praise, fame or for worldly purposes, falls under this minor form.

Almighty Allah says:

"Say (O Muhammad SAW ) : 'I am only a man like you, it has been inspired to me that your Ilh (God) is One Ilh (God i.e Allah). So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.' " (V. 18:110)

(3) Ash-Shirk-al-Khafi (The inconspicuous Shirk). This type implies being inwardly dissatisfied with the inevitable condition that has been ordained for one by Allah; conscientiously lamenting that had you done or not done such and such or had you approached such and such you would have had a better status, etc.

The Noble Prophet Muhammad SAW said:

"Ash-Shirk-al-Khafi in the Muslim nation is more inconspicuous than the creeping of black ant on black rock in the pitch-darkness of the night." And this inconspicuous Shirk is expiated by saying thrice the following sentences within a day and a night: "O Allah! I take Your refuge from that I should ascribe anything as partner in Your worship, being conscious of that, and I beg Your pardon for that sin which I am not aware of."

AL-KUFR-DISBELIEF AND ITS VARIOUS MANIFESTATIONS

Kufr is basically disbelief in any of the articles of Faith in Islam.

The articles of Faith are: To believe in -

(1) Allah,

(2) His angels,

(3) His Messengers,

(4) His revealed Books,

(5) The Day of Resurrection, and

(6) Al-Qadar, Divine Preordainments (Fate i.e. whatever Allah SWT has ordained must come to pass).

There are two aspects of disbelief:

(1). The major disbelief (Al-Kufr-al-Akbar): This aspect excludes one completely from the fold of Islam. There are five types (of this major disbelief):-

(a) Kufr-at-Takdhb. This implies disbelieving the divine truth or denying of any of the articles of Faith.

Almighty Allah says:

"Then who does more wrong than one who utters a lie against Allah and denies the truth [this Qur'n, the Prophet (Muhammad SAW), the Islamic Monotheism, the Resurrection, and the reward or punishment according to good or evil deeds], when it comes to him. Is there not in Hell an abode for the disbelievers? " (V. 39:32)

(b) Kufr-al-Ib' wat-Takabbur ma'at-Tasdq. This implies rejection and pride to submit to Allah's Commandments after conviction of their truth.

Almighty Allah says:

"And (remember) when We said to the angels: 'Prostrate yourself before Adam.' And they prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah)." (V. 2:34).

(c) Kufr-ash-Shak waz-Zan. This implies doubting or lacking of conviction in the six articles of Faith.

Almighty Allah says:

"And he went into his garden while in a state (of pride and disbelief) unjust to himself. He said: 'I think not that this will ever perish. And I think not the Hour will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord (on the Day of Resurrection) I surely shall find better than this when I return to Him.' His companion said to him during the talk with him: 'Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you out of dust (i.e. your father Adam), then out of Nutfah (mixed semen drops of male and female discharge), then fashioned you into a man? But as for my part (I believe) that He is Allah, my Lord, and none shall I associate as partner with my Lord.' " (V.18:3538)

(d) Kufr-al-I'rd. This implies turning away from the truth knowingly or deviating from the obvious signs which Allah has revealed.

Almighty Allah says:

"We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth and for an appointed term. But those who disbelieve turn away from that whereof they are warned." (V.46:3)

(e) Kufr-an-Nifq. This implies hypocritical disbelief.

Almighty Allah says:

"They have made their oaths a screen (for their hypocrisy). Thus they hinder (men) from the Path of Allah. Verily, evil is what they used to do. That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed, so they understand not." (V.63:2-3)

(2) The minor disbelief (Al-Kufr-al-Asghar): This aspect of disbelief does not exclude one from the fold of Islam. It is also termed Kufr-an-Ni'mah. This implies disbelief manifesting itself in ungratefulness for Allah's Blessings or Favours.

Almighty Allah says:

'And Allah puts forward the example of a township (Makka), that dwelt secure and well-content; its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its people) denied the Favours of Allah (with ungratefulness). So Allah made it taste the extreme of hunger (famine) and fear, because of that (evil, i.e. denying Prophet Muhammad SAW ) which they (its people) used to do." (V.16:112).

 
 
 
 
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